Write unit and fuzz tests for your Elm code, in Elm.
Here are three example tests:
suite : Test suite = describe "The String module" [ describe "String.reverse" -- Nest as many descriptions as you like. [ test "has no effect on a palindrome" <| \_ -> let palindrome = "hannah" in Expect.equal palindrome (String.reverse palindrome) -- Expect.equal is designed to be used in pipeline style, like this. , test "reverses a known string" <| \_ -> "ABCDEFG" |> String.reverse |> Expect.equal "GFEDCBA" -- fuzz runs the test 100 times with randomly-generated inputs! , fuzz string "restores the original string if you run it again" <| \randomlyGeneratedString -> randomlyGeneratedString |> String.reverse |> String.reverse |> Expect.equal randomlyGeneratedString ] ]
This code uses a few common functions:
describeto add a description string to a list of tests
testto write a unit test
Expectto determine if a test should pass or fail
fuzzto run a function that produces a test several times with randomly-generated inputs
Check out a large real-world test suite for more.
Running tests locally
There are several ways you can run tests locally:
Here's how to set up and run your tests using the CLI test runner:
npm install -g elm-testif you haven't already.
cdinto the project's root directory that has your
elm-test init. It will create a
testsdirectory inside this one, with some files in it.
- Copy all the dependencies from
tests/elm-package.json. These dependencies need to stay in sync, so make sure whenever you change your dependencies in your current
elm-package.json, you make the same change to
tests/Tests.elmto introduce new tests.
Running tests on CI
Here are some examples of running tests on CI servers:
Not running tests
During development, you'll often want to focus on specific tests, silence failing tests, or jot down many ideas for tests that you can't implement all at once. We've got you covered with
wipSuite : Test wipSuite = describe "skip, only, and todo" [ only <| describe "Marking this test as `only` means no other tests will be run!" [ test "This test will be run" <| \_ -> 1 + 1 |> Expect.equal 2 , skip <| "This test will be skipped, even though it's in an only!" <| \_ -> 2 + 3 |> Expect.equal 4 ] , test "This test will be skipped because it has no only" <| \_ -> "left" |> Expect.equal "right" , todo "Make sure all splines are reticulated" ]
If you run this example, or any suite that uses one of these three functions, it will result in an incomplete test run. No tests failed, but you also didn't run your entire suite, so we can't call it a success either. Incomplete test runs are reported to CI systems as indistinguishable from failed test runs, to safeguard against accidentally committing a gutted test suite!
Strategies for effective testing
- Make impossible states unrepresentable so that you don't have to test that they can't occur.
- When doing TDD, treat compiler errors as a red test. So feel free to write the test you wish you had even if it means calling functions that don't exist yet!
- If your API is difficult for you to test, it will be difficult for someone else to use. You are your API's first client.
- Prefer fuzz tests to unit tests, where possible. If you have a union type with a small number of values, list them all and map over the list with a unit test for each. Unit tests are also great for when you know the edge cases, and for regression tests.
- If you're writing a library that wraps an existing standard or protocol, use examples from the specification or docs as unit tests.
- For simple functions, it's okay to copy the implementation to the test; this is a useful regression check. But if the implementation isn't obviously right, try to write tests that don't duplicate the suspect logic. The great thing about fuzz tests is that you don't have to arrive at the exact same value as the code under test, just state something that will be true of that value.
- Tests should be small and focused: call the code under test and set an expectation about the result. Setup code should be moved into reusable functions, or custom fuzzers. For example, a test to remove an element from a data structure should be given a nonempty data structure; it should not have to create one itself.
- Consider using elm-verify-examples to extract examples in your docs into unit tests.
- Not even your test modules can import unexposed functions, so test them only as the exposed interface uses them. Don't expose a function just to test it. Every exposed function should have tests. (If you practice TDD, this happens automatically!)
- How do you know when to stop testing? This is an engineering tradeoff without a perfect answer. If you don't feel confident in the correctness of your code, write more tests. If you feel you are wasting time testing better spent writing your application, stop writing tests for now.
There are a few extra ideas that apply to testing webapps and reusable view packages:
- Avoid importing your
Mainmodule. Most of your code belongs in other modules, so import those instead.
- Test your views using elm-html-test.
- To test effects, consider using elm-testable.
- There is currently no Elm solution for integration or end-to-end testing. Use your favorite PhantomJS or Selenium webdriver, such as Capybara.
Make sure you grab the latest versions of the test runner that you are using:
npm update -g elm-test
elm package install rtfeldman/html-test-runner
Fuzz.frequency now fails the test if the frequency is invalid, rather than return a
Result. If you are using this function, you can remove your
Err handling code. More likely you are using
Fuzz.frequencyOrCrash, which you can replace with
Instead of using
Test.filter to avoid running tests, use
only (see above for documentation).
We now forbid tests and suites to have descriptions that are blank, or that are identical across siblings or parents and children. If you get failures from this, rename your tests to be clearer about what they're testing.
You will need to delete
If you are using the Node runner, you will need to install the latest version (
npm update -g elm-test) and pull down the new
curl -o tests/Main.elm https://raw.githubusercontent.com/rtfeldman/node-test-runner/3.0.1/templates/Main.elm
From 1.x and elm-check
legacy-elm-test provides a
drop-in replacement for the
ElmTest 1.0 API, except implemented in terms of
elm-test. It also includes support for
This lets you use the latest test runners right now, and upgrade incrementally.
|3.0.0||Update for Elm 0.18; switch the argument order of
|2.1.0||Switch to rose trees for
|2.0.0||Scratch-rewrite to project-fuzzball|
|1.0.0||ElmTest initial release|