Documentation

Urna - REST in peace

Urna is a simple DSL around cauldron to implement REST services.

Basics

Urna tries to follow the REST style as closely as possible, there are namespaces and resources, and standard requests to these resources will receive proper answers.

It includes OPTIONS requests being properly processed, requests on non-existent resources being answered with 404 and verbs not implemented for the resource being answered with a 405.

defmodule Example do
  use Urna

  # namespace is used to define an additional path to access the resource, in
  # this case /foo/.
  namespace :foo do
    # resource is used to, you guessed it, define a resource, since we're in
    # the :foo namespace it will be accessible at /foo/bar.
    resource :bar do
      # A get without a parameter responds to a GET request to the resource, in
      # this case /foo/bar.
      #
      # The result of the block is automatically converted to an accepted
      # content type extracted from the Accept header.
      get do
        42
      end

      # A get with a parameter responds to a GET request to the resource with
      # an additional value, in this case /foo/bar/:id.
      get id do
        id
      end

      # A post without a parameter, alike get, responds to a POST request to
      # the resource, again in this case /foo/bar.
      #
      # You can access the decoded content in the params variable, the decoding
      # is done based on the Content-Type header assumed there's an available
      # decoder for that type.
      post do
        param("id")
      end

      # Other common verbs are available: head, get, post, put, delete.
      #
      # If you want you can define your own verbs too, instead of using the
      # available ones you can use the verb function.
      #
      # In this case it will respond to a HUE request on /foo/bar.
      verb "HUE" do
        "huehuehuehue"
      end
    end
  end
end

Replying to or failing the request

Sometimes you want to answer with a failure or a success with a specific response code and text.

To do this you can use the reply and fail functions. Both functions take as first parameter the error code, unless a text parameter is given it will use the standard text.

If a result is also given, it's expected as first parameter.

defmodule Example do
  use Urna

  resource :foo do
    # I'm a tea pot.
    get do
      fail 418
    end
  end

  resource :bar do
    # Here you could do something with the parameters and write a row to a
    # table, so you'd want to answer to the request with a 201 (Created)
    # response, on top with the newly created row.
    post do
      Hey.create(params()) |> reply 201
    end
  end
end

Verb parameter conversion

Urna also supports converting the verb parameter to an integer or float, for more complex conversion you'll have to deal it yourself.

defmodule Example do
  use Urna

  resource :baz do
    get id, as: Integer do

    end
  end
end

Accessing various variables

On top of params there are other useful variables you can access.

  • headers contains the headers of the request.
  • uri is the URI.Info of the request.
  • query is the decoded query part of the uri.

Adapters

Urna supports various adapters and it's easy to extend them as well.

Adapters are used to deal with encoding and decoding based on the value of Accept and Content-Type headers.

The ones provided out of the box are an application/json adapter based on jazz and an application/x-www-form-urlencoded adapter which uses the standard URI.decode_query function.

defmodule Example do
  use Urna, adapters: [Urna.JSON, Urna.Form]

  resource :foo do
    get do
      [foo: :bar]
    end
  end
end

CORS

Urna supports CORS out of the box, just pass what to allow on use Urna and it will handle the various access control headers automatically.

defmodule API do
  use Urna, allow: [methods: true, headers: true, credentials: true]
end

This example will allow all methods, headers and HTTP credentials, check the documentation for more information.

Deploying on Heroku

Give an app (mix is required):

defmodule TestApp do
  use Urna

  resource "", do: "hello world!"
end

Create an app with the elixir buildpack:

heroku create --buildpack https://github.com/HashNuke/heroku-buildpack-elixir.git

Add a Procfile with the following line:

web: mix run -e "{:ok,_} = Urna.start TestApp, port: ${PORT:-3000}" --no-halt

Push the app to deploy it:

git push heroku master