Content assertion library for Python


Keywords
validation, test, unit test, content assertion
License
Other
Install
pip install conssert==0.2.11

Documentation

conssert

Conssert is an ultralight Python library (~500 lines of code) to facilitate the verification of arbitrarily complex data structures.

It provides a declarative syntax to navigate and lookup key/value pairs in nested data structures; allowing partial assertions, conditional assertions, check certain properties, and more.

Conssert is designed for simplicity, robustness, and extensibility. Particularly, it is well suited for testing changing data (e.g., integration tests with reusable fixtures or system tests that rely on external services).

Conssert is completely agnostic of the testing framework.

It is not a schema validation library. Although is possible to check types with it, Conssert is intended for content verification.

Usage.

Conssert verifications run within a context manager, which is initialized with the object under test:

from conssert import Assertable

...


def test_users(self):
    with Assertable({'users': [
            {'name': 'Alice',
             'mails': ['alice@gmail.com'],
             'country': 'UK',
             'knows_python': False,
             'birth_date': datetime(1987, 01, 06),
             'favourite': {'color': 'Blue',
                           'number': 1}},
            {'name': 'Bob',
             'mails': ['bob@gmail.com', 'pythonlover@yahoo.com'],
             'knows_python': True,
             'birth_date': datetime(1982, 04, 22),
             'favourite': {'color': 'Black',
                           'number': 42}},
            {'name': 'Mette',
             'mails': [],
             'country': 'DK',
             'knows_python': True,
             'birth_date': datetime(1980, 11, 11),
             'favourite': {'color': 'Green',
                           'number': 7}}]}) as users:
        users('users').has_length(3)

A Conssert verification has 2 parts. In the first part you get a selection (portion) of the object that you are interested in testing. In the second part you assert certain values or properties. In the verification above, users('users') returns a selection which contains the value of the key 'users' and .has_length(3) asserts the length of that selection.

Similarly, you can write:

        users.one('users name').is_('Alice')
        users.one('users name').is_('Alice', 'Bob')

The first verification asserts that there is exactly one user named 'Alice' and the second one asserts that there is exactly one user named 'Alice' and one other user (a different one) named 'Bob'.

You can also verify a subset of the properties:

        users.one('users').has({'name': 'Alice', 'country': 'UK', 'favourite': {'color': 'Blue'}})
        users.one('users').has_some_of({'name': 'Alice', 'country': 'IE'}

The first verification runs an AND (there is a user named 'Alice', whose country is UK, and whose favourite color is blue), and the second one runs an OR (there is an user that either is named 'Alice' or her country is Ireland).

users.one('users') returns a selection containing the list of all users and will ensure that the assertion you perform on it will hold for one and only one element in the selection. Similarly, users.one('users name') will return a selection with all the user names, users.one('users name favourite color') will return all favourite colors from all the users, and so on.

Note that you can use a list (e.g., users.one(['users', 'name', 'favourite', 'color'])) or an arbitrary combination of strings and lists (e.g., users.one('users', ['name', 'favourite'], 'color'])). All these expressions are equivalent and it makes easy to reuse arguments.

An interesting Conssert feature is that you can filter the selection result by key/value pairs. Lets say that we are only interested in Bob and we want to verify that he knows Python. We would write:

        users.one(['users', ('name', 'Bob'), 'knows_python']).is_true()

You need to put a tuple in a list, where the first element of the tuple is the key and the second one is the value to filter.

This example also illustrates one verification method for the Boolean type (the other one, unsurprisingly is is_false()). There are two other methods, namely evals_true() and evals_false() to verify the truth value of non Boolean types (e.g., an empty sequence is False).

Lets see now how to verify lists.

        users.one('users mails').has('bob@gmail.com')                             # exactly one user has this mail...
        users.one('users mails').has('bob@gmail.com', 'alice@gmail.com')          # different users has these 2 mails...
        users.one('users mails').has(['pythonlover@yahoo.com', 'bob@gmail.com'])  # the same user has these 2 mails
        users.one('users mails').has(['pythonlover@yahoo.com', 'bob@gmail.com'], 'alice@gmail.com')        # voila!

The examples above only perform partial verification. Normally you do partial verifications with has and full verifications with is_. The is_ method applied on lists doesn't care about ordering, but there is an order-relevant flavour of it:

        # Bob has exactly these 2 mails
        users.one(['users', ('name', 'Bob'), 'mails']).is_(['pythonlover@yahoo.com', 'bob@gmail.com'])
        # Bob has exactly these 2 mails in that order
        users.one(['users', ('name', 'Bob'), 'mails']).is_ordered(['bob@gmail.com', 'pythonlover@yahoo.com'])

The only selectors used so far are one and the context manager itself, which happens to be a callable. We have used the context manager callable at the beginning to verify the length of the object value.

The difference between one and the callable is that the former iterates over the sequence of elements performing a verification on each element and aggregating the results at the end, and the later performs only one verification on the entire object (which might be a sequence or not).

There are other selectors that iterate over the sequence values. every will assert that the verification holds for all the elements in the sequence:

        users.every('users favourite number').is_a(int)

In the example above we make sure that all favourite numbers of all the users are values of type int.

If we are interested in both favourite numbers and favourite colors we can use the expansion symbol * to cover both:

        users.every('users favourite *').evals_true()

This verifies that every value under the 'favourite' key for every user is logically true. You also can expand all the leaves in the object tree:

        users.every('**').is_not_none()  # every value of any property of any user is not none

If a test fails, the exception will give you some valuable bits of information:

        users.every('name').is_('Alice')
        
        AssertionError:
        Selection on the object under test with path ['users', 'name'] --->
        
               ['Alice', 'Bob', 'Mette']
        
        Compared with assertion input --->
        
               'Alice'
        
        Not verified (expected = 3, got = 1)

There is also an every_existent selector which behaves like every except that it doesn't complain if the attribute is not present.

Other selectors are some, no, and the more generic at_least, at_most, and exactly - which receive as argument the number of valid assertions.

There are also a bunch of handy methods to match regular expressions, check duplicates, and do other common verifications:

        users.every_existent('country').evals_true()  # for every user that has a country, that country is logically true
        users.some('country').is_not('DK')            # some user's country is Denmark        
        users.at_least(2, 'knows_python').is_true()   # at least 2 users know Python
        users.no('favourite color').is_('Yellow')     # no users have yellow as favourite color
        users.every('mails').has_no_duplicates()      # there are no duplicate mails
        users.every([('name', 'Bob'), 'mails']).matches("[^@]+@[^@]+\.[^@]+")  # every Bob's mail matches the regex
        
        with Assertable({'name': 'Alice',
                 'country': 'UK',
                 'knows_python': False}) as alice:
        alice().has_keys('name', 'country')  # these are keys present in the dict
        alice().keys_are(['name', 'country', 'knows_python'])  # these are *all* the keys in the dict

So far we have been repeating the 'users' key in all our examples. We also can add it as a second argument in the context manager initialization so all the "paths" in the selection arguments are prefixed by that one:

        with Assertable({'users': [
                {'name': 'Alice',
                 'mails': ['alice@gmail.com'],
                 'country': 'UK',
                 'knows_python': False,
                 'birth_date': datetime(1987, 01, 06),
                 'favourite': {'color': 'Blue',
                               'number': 1}},
                {'name': 'Bob',
                 'mails': ['bob@gmail.com', 'pythonlover@yahoo.com'],
                 'knows_python': True,
                 'birth_date': datetime(1982, 04, 22),
                 'favourite': {'color': 'Black',
                               'number': 42}},
                {'name': 'Mette',
                 'mails': [],
                 'country': 'DK',
                 'knows_python': True,
                 'birth_date': datetime(1980, 11, 11),
                 'favourite': {'color': 'Green',
                               'number': 7}}]},
            'users') as users:
            users().has_length(3)  # we don't need to say users('users').has_length(3)

Even when we only have 3 users now, our user base might grow and we might be happier saying that there are at least 3 users. The has_length method accepts a cmp argument in which you can specify a comparator function, so we could write:

        users().has_length(3, cmp=operator.ge)  # 3 or more users

You can use cmp with has too. Actually, the previous example is the short form for:

        users().has(3, cmp=operator.ge, property=len)

In here we have used a cmp and a property arguments. property is a function that will be applied to the selection before comparing it with the input argument.

When using property it is always a good idea to specify a cmp function, otherwise Conssert will try to guess a comparator function based on the data types, which might not be what you expect.

A few more elaborated examples:

        # all users are more than 20 years old
        users.every('birth_date').has(20, cmp=operator.gt, property=lambda birth_date: (datetime.now() - birth_date).days / 365)

    with Assertable([2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19]) as in_primes:
        # verifies ascending order
        in_primes().has(True, cmp=operator.eq, property=lambda x: x == sorted(x))

        # verifies that the numbers are actually prime
        all_modulo = lambda x: [(n, x % n) for n in xrange(1, x + 1)]
        all_divisible = lambda x: ([x for (x, m) in all_modulo(x) if m == 0], x)
        is_prime = lambda (div_set, x), _: len(div_set) == 2 and 1 in div_set and x in div_set
        in_primes.every().has("unused parameter", cmp=is_prime, property=all_divisible)

Installation & Requirements.

Install with pip:

    pip install conssert

Alternately, you can clone it from the GitHub repo:

    git clone git@github.com:podio/conssert.git

Conssert depends on Python 2.7