EventSource (SSE, Server-Sent Events) broadcasting server with channel support, Last-Event-Id etc, based on top of cyclone web server

python, non-blocking, twisted, cyclone, sse, eventsource, broadcast, http, redis, amqp, rabbitmq
pip install cyclone-sse==0.7.7



inspired by Sergey Trofimov's tornado_sse

An example of using this with Django can be found in django-realtime-playground repo.


EventSource (or Server-Sent-Events) is a technology for providing push data (notifications, content updates) from a server to a browser client in the form of DOM events. Read these excellent articles for more information:

The goal of this repo is to provide you a server for SSE event broadcasting and to give some useful information what to do on client side. Broadcasting server built on top of cyclone - it is fully asynchronous and extremely fast.


virtualenv --no-site-packages env
. env/bin/activate
pip install cyclone-sse

Let's describe on example one of possible use cases::

1) Your web application's visitor opens a page. Let it be a text translation
of new Apple iPhone 6 presentation or, if you do not like Apple, Samsung Galaxy S5.
Javascript creates EventSource object and establishes connection with our cyclone
server. In GET parameters of url to connect we provide a channel name we want 
to listen to.

2) Asynchronous broadcast server accepts this connection and keeps it open to
transfer data when this will be necessary.

3) Wow, just now text translation's author got a specifications of new phone!!
Of course he wants to share it with our visitors. He submits special form with specification text.
Your php (or django, or nodejs, or ror) application saves it in database as usually.
Then in the simpliest case - this data must be POSTed on our cyclone server. We should
not forget to provide a channel name we want to publish this text in. Our cyclone server
has a special handler which listens to such POSTs and then broadcasts data to
all our clients (visitors). Event in web browser fires and our client side 
javascript code draws phone specification message in activity feed.
The new phone has 8 cores - what a good news!!

That was only one example of using SSE technology, it is also well suited for things like comments, dynamic charts, stats etc..

Server side

To run server in development:

twistd -n cyclone-sse

Use -h option to see available options:

twistd -n cyclone-sse -h

Due to the power of twistd, this application can be easily deployed in production, with all the basic features of standard daemons:

twistd --uid=www-data --gid=www-data --reactor=epoll \
       --logfile=/var/log/cyclone-sse.log --pidfile=/var/run/ \
       cyclone-sse --port=8080 --listen=

You can think that you need too many cyclone-sse options to pass them as command line arguments. In this case you may want to use this configuration file. Just create such file, fill it with correct option values and run cyclone-sse:

twistd -n cyclone-sse `cat cyclone-sse.conf`

EventSource does not support CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) in all web-browsers. So you need to proxy connections to cyclone-sse server to make EventSource believe that you make connection to the same domain.

If your main server in behind Nginx you should proxy SSE like this:

location /sse/ {
    rewrite                 ^(.*)$ / break; # to root of our tornado
    proxy_buffering         off; # to push immediately
    proxy_pass    ; # proxy /sse/ requests to our cyclone-sse server to avoid cross domain problems

Also read this to avoid some possible problems

Client side

On the client side, you connect to your URL / with one or more channels query parameters. With EventSource, you'd to that like this:

<!doctype html>
<meta charset=utf-8>

    sse = new EventSource('')
    sse.addEventListener('message', function(e) {
        console.log("Got message",

    /* Some helpful handler to have */
    sse.addEventListener('open', function(e) {"Opened SSE connection")
    sse.addEventListener('error', function(e) {
        console.error("Failed to open SSE connection")

jQuery plugin for controling several types of events

Simple usage:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
        <meta charset="utf-8"/>
        <script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
        <script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
        <script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
        <script type="text/javascript">
        <div id="sse-handler" data-sse-address="http://localhost:8888/" data-sse-channels="base"></div>

Now it is a time to go deeper. On your web page can be a lot of different stuff you want to update in realtime. For example, comments, notifications about some user's action - login, many as you can imagine. In this case you would need a tool that helps to control all types of events. And this repo has such a tool. Here it is -

This is a jquery plugin. Its job is to find all special DOM elements which describe channels we want to listen on this page. As it found such elements plugin creates a SINGLE connection to cyclone SSE server (something like multiplexing - Moreover when any event appears it triggers corresponding DOM element - so you can process easily process it.

Lets see how it looks in a web page code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
                <meta charset="utf-8"/>
                <script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
                <script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
                <script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
                <script type="text/javascript">
                // create custom prefix for all sse events
                var sseEventPrefix = 'sse.';

                // activate sse plugin to collect channels and to make a single connection to the server
                                $.sse({selector: '.sse', debug: true, eventPrefix: sseEventPrefix});

                // bind our sse event to general handler
                var generalHandler = $('#general_handler');
                var generalEvent = sseEventPrefix + generalHandler.attr("data-sse-events");
                generalHandler.on(generalEvent, function(event, data){
                    // here should be your code

                // bind sse event to weather handler
                var weatherHandler = $('#weather_handler');
                var weatherEvent = sseEventPrefix + weatherHandler.attr("data-sse-events");
                weatherHandler.on(weatherEvent, function(event, data){
                    // here should be your code that redraws weather forecast

        <div class="sse" id="general_handler" data-sse-channels="general_channel" data-sse-events="general_channel" style="display:none;">&nbsp;</div>  
        <div class="sse" id="weather_handler" data-sse-channels="weather_channel" data-sse-events="weather_channel" style="display:none;">&nbsp;</div>  

We created two handlers - one for general information about our web page and one for weather forecast. Also we use custom event prefix to avoid event name collapses. And finally we bind events in a usual jquery way to those handlers.

Old browsers fallback

This project uses an extremely modified Rick Waldron's jQuery polyfill jquery.eventsource. If browser does not natively support EventSource, then we use long-polling, so it works nice even in Internet Explorer.

Check that everything works!

If you are using default HTTP broker:

curl --dump-header - -X POST -d "message=%5B123%2C+124%5D&channel=base" http://localhost:8888/publish

You published message [123, 124] into channel base. Do not forget to encode your message as json!!

To check that everything work fine with redis broker - open your web browser console, then go to redis console (redis-cli) and type:

publish base '[1, 2, 3]'

You published message [1, 2, 3] into the channel base. You should see an array in browser console (debug option of sse jquery plugin must be true). There is a moment to keep attention at: your message must be json encoded data - if you want to receive plain text then add 'type': 'text' in jquery sse plugin initialization options.

Available publish mechanisms

  • HTTP The simpliest mechanism. All you need to do is to POST message on /publish url of broadcast server in the following format:
{"key": "secret key to prove your right to publish",
"channel": "channel name",
"message": "new message data"}
  • Redis This broker allows you to listen to Redis channels and broadcasts incoming messages. This option is especially usefull if you decide to run multible instances of cyclone-sse server for load balancing. txRedisApi library is used for this.

  • AMQP Allows to listen AMQP toolkits, such as RabbitMQ, Qpid etc. In this case you should provide amqp specification XML file. txAMQP is used for this. You can find specifications here

Load testing

On this moment application was tested on 3600 simultanious connections using HTTP broker. /stats handler showed following state:

[(u'cats', 946), (u'extras', 899), (u'dogs', 864), (u'base', 877), (u'general', 3586)]

As you can see, all clients were connected to general channel, and to one of other 4 channels. Test took place on local machine - macbook Air (core i5, 4GB RAM) using kqueue reactor. Results are perfect - about 200 ms for broadcasting into channel general and about 50 ms for broadcasting into one of others channels. And this has been done in a nondaemon twistd mode - so real results could be much better. I will update this information as soon as I make new load tests.

You can do your own measurements using script from extras directory.

Extending standard behavior

You may want to extend cyclone-sse. In this case you can run cyclone-sse plugin with option --app that allows you to use your own cyclone.web.Application. So you can decide what handlers or brokers you need, write your own or extend existing from cyclone_sse.handlers and cyclone_sse.brokers. Example can be found here or in django realtime playground repo

Export server statistics

cyclone-sse has a possibility to send its state to graphite ( To make it send stats to graphite just run cyclone-sse using following arguments:

twistd -n cyclone-sse --export=graphite --export-host= --export-port=33333 --export-path=graphite.prefix.for.stats

Of course, use correct graphite HOST and PORT values

Known Issues

  • SSE provides a possibility to use custom Event type. This app does not use it, because some web browsers recognize only standard event type - message. But it does not mean you can not use custom event types. All you need to do is, for example, to put your custom event type in the first place of message array. (["your_event_type", "data"]). In this way you can detect event type on client side and decide what to do with incoming message. This is a payment for crossbrowser compatibility.

  • According to this SO post their is no OpenSSL 0.9.8f distribution for CentOS 5. So for CentOS 5 we use pyopenssl of version 0.12 (not latest)