pytest-ansible plugin is designed to provide seamless integration between
Ansible, allowing you to efficiently run and test Ansible-related
tasks and scenarios within your pytest test suite. This plugin enhances the
testing workflow by offering three distinct pieces of functionality:
Unit Testing for Ansible Collections: This feature aids in running unit tests for
pytest. It allows you to validate the behavior of your Ansible
rolesin isolation, ensuring that each component functions as expected.
Molecule Scenario Integration: The plugin assists in running Molecule
pytest. This integration streamlines the testing of Ansible roles and playbooks across different environments, making it easier to identify and fix issues across diverse setups.
Ansible Integration for Pytest Tests: With this functionality, you can seamlessly use
Ansiblefrom within your
pytesttests. This opens up possibilities to interact with Ansible components and perform tasks like provisioning resources, testing configurations, and more, all while leveraging the power and flexibility of pytest.
Pytest Ansible will only support versions of python and ansible-core which are under active upstream support which currently translates to:
- Python 3.9 or newer
- Ansible-core 2.14 or newer
Install this plugin using
pip install pytest-ansible
Unit Testing for Ansible Collections
pytest-ansible-units plugin allows ansible collection's unit tests to be
run with only
pytest. It offers a focused approach to testing individual
Ansible modules. With this plugin, you can write and execute unit tests
specifically for Ansible modules, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of your
module code. This is particularly useful for verifying the correctness of module
behavior in isolation.
pytest-ansible-units, follow these steps:
- Install the plugin using pip:
pip install pytest-ansible
Ensure you have Python 3.9 or greater, ansible-core, and pyyaml installed.
Depending on your preferred directory structure, you can clone collections into the appropriate paths.
Collection Tree Approach: The preferred approach is to clone the collections being developed into it's proper collection tree path. This eliminates the need for any symlinks and other collections being developed can be cloned into the same tree structure.
git clone <repo> collections/ansible_collections/<namespace>/<name>
pytestin the root of the collection directory, adjacent to the collection's
Shallow Tree Approach:
git clone <repo>
pytestin the root of the collection directory, adjacent to the collection's
- A collections directory will be created in the repository directory, and collection content will be linked into it.
Execute the unit tests using pytest:
The following may be added to the collections'
pyproject.toml file to limit
warnings and set the default path for the collection's tests
[tool.pytest.ini_options] testpaths = [ "tests", ] filterwarnings = [ 'ignore:AnsibleCollectionFinder has already been configured', ]
Information from the
galaxy.yml file is used to build the
directory structure and link the contents. The
galaxy.yml file should reflect
the correct collection namespace and name.
One way to detect issues without running the tests is to run:
The follow errors may be seen:
E ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'ansible_collections'
- Check the
galaxy.ymlfile for an accurate namespace and name
pytestis being run from the collection's root directory, adjacent to the
HINT: remove __pycache__ / .pyc files and/or use a unique basename for your test file modules
Molecule Scenario Integration
This functionality assists in running Molecule
enables pytest discovery of all
molecule.yml files inside the codebase and
runs them as pytest tests. It allows you to include Molecule scenarios as part
of your pytest test suite, allowing you to thoroughly test your Ansible roles
and playbooks across different scenarios and environments.
Running molecule scenarios using pytest
Molecule scenarios can be tested using 2 different methods if molecule is installed.
test_integration.py file to the
tests/integration directory of the
"""Tests for molecule scenarios.""" from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function from pytest_ansible.molecule import MoleculeScenario def test_integration(molecule_scenario: MoleculeScenario) -> None: """Run molecule for each scenario. :param molecule_scenario: The molecule scenario object """ proc = molecule_scenario.test() assert proc.returncode == 0
molecule_scenario fixture provides parameterized molecule scenarios
discovered in the collection's
extensions/molecule directory, as well as other
directories within the collection.
molecule test -s <scenario> will be run for each scenario and a completed
subprocess returned from the
Run molecule with the
--molecule command line parameter to inject each
molecule directory found in the current working directory. Each scenario will be
injected as an external test in the the tests available for pytest. Due to the
nature of this approach, the molecule scenarios are not represented as python
tests and may not show in the IDE's pytest test tree.
To run Molecule scenarios using pytest, follow these steps:
- Install the
pytest-ansibleplugin using pip:
pip install pytest-ansible
- Execute pytest to run Molecule scenarios:
Ansible Integration for Pytest Tests
are provided to help you integrate Ansible functionalities into your pytest
tests. These fixtures allow you to interact with Ansible modules, run commands
on localhost, fetch Ansible facts, and more.
Fixtures and helpers for use in tests
Here's a quick overview of the available fixtures:
ansible_module: Allows you to call Ansible modules directly within your test functions.
ansible_adhoc: Provides a function to initialize a
HostManagerobject to work with Ansible inventory.
localhost: A convenience fixture for running Ansible modules that typically run on the local machine.
ansible_facts: Returns a JSON structure representing system facts for the associated inventory.
Once installed, the following
pytest command-line parameters are available:
pytest \ [--inventory <path_to_inventory>] \ [--extra-inventory <path_to_extra_inventory>] \ [--host-pattern <host-pattern>] \ [--connection <plugin>] \ [--module-path <path_to_modules] \ [--user <username>] \ [--become] \ [--become-user <username>] \ [--become-method <method>] \ [--ask-become-pass] \ [--limit <limit>] \ [--ansible-unit-inject-only] \ [--molecule] \ [--molecule-unavailable-driver] \ [--skip-no-git-change] \ [--check]
Using ansible first starts with defining your inventory. This can be done in
several ways, but to start, we'll use the
def test_my_inventory(ansible_adhoc): hosts = ansible_adhoc()
In the example above, the
hosts variable is an instance of the
class and describes your ansible inventory. For this to work, you'll need to
ansible where to find your inventory. Inventory can be anything supported
by ansible, which includes an
INI file or an
executable script that returns
properly formatted JSON.
pytest --inventory my_inventory.ini --host-pattern all
pytest --inventory path/to/my/script.py --host-pattern webservers
pytest --inventory one.example.com,two.example.com --host-pattern all
In the above examples, the inventory provided at runtime will be used in all
tests that use the
ansible_adhoc fixture. A more realistic scenario may
involve using different inventory files (or host patterns) with different tests.
To accomplish this, the fixture
ansible_adhoc allows you to customize the
inventory parameters. Read on for more detail on using the
Using ansible first starts with defining your extra inventory. This feature was
added in version 2.3.0, and is intended to allow the user to work with two
different inventories. This can be done in several ways, but to start, we'll use
pytest --inventory my_inventory.ini --extra-inventory my_second_inventory.ini --host-pattern host_in_second_inventory
ansible_adhoc fixture returns a function used to initialize a
HostManager object. The
ansible_adhoc fixture will default to parameters
supplied to the
pytest command-line, but also allows one to provide keyword
arguments used to initialize the inventory.
The example below demonstrates basic usage with options supplied at run-time to
def test_all_the_pings(ansible_adhoc): ansible_adhoc().all.ping()
The following example demonstrates available keyword arguments when creating a
def test_uptime(ansible_adhoc): # take down the database ansible_adhoc(inventory='db1.example.com,', user='ec2-user', become=True, become_user='root').all.command('reboot')
HostManager object returned by the
ansible_adhoc() function provides
numerous ways of calling ansible modules against some, or all, of the inventory.
The following demonstrates sample usage.
def test_host_manager(ansible_adhoc): hosts = ansible_adhoc() # __getitem__ hosts['all'].ping() hosts['localhost'].ping() # __getattr__ hosts.all.ping() hosts.localhost.ping() # Supports [ansible host patterns](http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/intro_patterns.html) hosts['webservers:!phoenix'].ping() # all webservers that are not in phoenix hosts.ping() hosts[0:2].ping() assert 'one.example.com' in hosts assert hasattr(hosts, 'two.example.com') for a_host in hosts: a_host.ping()
localhost fixture is a convenience fixture that surfaces a
ModuleDispatcher instance for ansible host running
pytest. This is
convenient when using ansible modules that typically run on the local machine,
such as cloud modules (ec2, gce etc...).
def test_do_something_cloudy(localhost, ansible_adhoc): """Deploy an ec2 instance using multiple fixtures.""" params = dict( key_name='some_key', instance_type='t2.micro', image='ami-123456', wait=True, group='webservers', count=1, vpc_subnet_id='subnet-29e63245', assign_public_ip=True, ) # Deploy an ec2 instance from localhost using the `ansible_adhoc` fixture ansible_adhoc(inventory='localhost,', connection='local').localhost.ec2(**params) # Deploy an ec2 instance from localhost using the `localhost` fixture localhost.ec2(**params)
ansible_module fixture allows tests and fixtures to call
ansible modules. Unlike the
ansible_adhoc fixture, this fixture only uses the options supplied to
at run time.
A very basic example demonstrating the ansible
def test_ping(ansible_module): ansible_module.ping()
A more involved example of updating the sshd configuration, and restarting the service.
def test_sshd_config(ansible_module): # update sshd MaxSessions contacted = ansible_module.lineinfile( dest="/etc/ssh/sshd_config", regexp="^#?MaxSessions .*", line="MaxSessions 150") ) # assert desired outcome for (host, result) in contacted.items(): assert 'failed' not in result, result['msg'] assert 'changed' in result # restart sshd contacted = ansible_module.service( name="sshd", state="restarted" ) # assert successful restart for (host, result) in contacted.items(): assert 'changed' in result and result['changed'] assert result['name'] == 'sshd' # do other stuff ...
ansible_facts fixture returns a JSON structure representing the system
facts for the associated inventory. Sample fact data is available in the
Note, this fixture is provided for convenience and could easily be called using
A systems facts can be useful when deciding whether to skip a test ...
def test_something_with_amazon_ec2(ansible_facts): for facts in ansible_facts: if 'ec2.internal' != facts['ansible_domain']: pytest.skip("This test only applies to ec2 instances")
Additionally, since facts are just ansible modules, you could inspect the
contents of the
ec2_facts module for greater granularity ...
def test_terminate_us_east_1_instances(ansible_adhoc): for facts in ansible_adhoc().all.ec2_facts(): if facts['ansible_ec2_placement_region'].startswith('us-east'): '''do some testing'''
--ansible-inventory=<inventory> includes many systems, but you
only wish to interact with a subset. The
pytest.mark.ansible marker can be
used to modify the
pytest-ansible command-line parameters for a single test.
Please note, the fixture
ansible_adhoc is the prefer mechanism for interacting
with ansible inventory within tests.
For example, to interact with the local system, you would adjust the
@pytest.mark.ansible(host_pattern='local,', connection='local') def test_copy_local(ansible_module): # create a file with random data contacted = ansible_module.copy( dest='/etc/motd', content='PyTest is amazing!', owner='root', group='root', mode='0644', ) # assert only a single host was contacted assert len(contacted) == 1, \ "Unexpected number of hosts contacted (%d != %d)" % \ (1, len(contacted)) assert 'local' in contacted # assert the copy module reported changes assert 'changed' in contacted['local'] assert contacted['local']['changed']
Note, the parameters provided by
pytest.mark.ansible will apply to all class
@pytest.mark.ansible(host_pattern='local,', connection='local') class Test_Local(object): def test_install(self, ansible_module): '''do some testing''' def test_template(self, ansible_module): '''do some testing''' def test_service(self, ansible_module): '''do some testing'''
When using the
ansible_module fixtures, the
object returned will be an instance of class
class can be inspected as follows:
def test_adhoc_result(ansible_adhoc): contacted = ansible_adhoc(inventory=my_inventory).command("date") # As a dictionary for (host, result) in contacted.items(): assert result.is_successful, "Failed on host %s" % host for result in contacted.values(): assert result.is_successful for host in contacted.keys(): assert host in ['localhost', 'one.example.com'] assert contacted.localhost.is_successful # As a list assert len(contacted) > 0 assert 'localhost' in contacted # As an iterator for result in contacted: assert result.is_successful # With __getattr__ assert contacted.localhost.is_successful # Or __getitem__ assert contacted['localhost'].is_successful
AdHocResult object provides ways to conveniently access results for
different hosts involved in the ansible adhoc command. Once the specific host
result is found, you may inspect the result of the ansible adhoc command on that
use by way of the
ModuleResult interface. The
ModuleResult class represents
the dictionary returned by the ansible module for a particular host. The
contents of the dictionary depend on the module called.
ModuleResult interface provides some convenient properties to determine
the success of the module call. Examples are included below.
def test_module_result(localhost): contacted = localhost.command("find /tmp") assert contacted.localhost.is_successful assert contacted.localhost.is_ok assert contacted.localhost.is_changed assert not contacted.localhost.is_failed contacted = localhost.shell("exit 1") assert contacted.localhost.is_failed assert not contacted.localhost.is_successful
The contents of the JSON returned by an ansible module differs from module to module. For guidance, consult the documentation and examples for the specific ansible module.
ansible is unable to connect to any inventory, an exception will be raised.
@pytest.mark.ansible(inventory='unreachable.example.com,') def test_shutdown(ansible_module): # attempt to ping a host that is down (or doesn't exist) pytest.raises(pytest_ansible.AnsibleHostUnreachable): ansible_module.ping()
Sometimes, only a single host is unreachable, and others will have properly returned data. The following demonstrates how to catch the exception, and inspect the results.
@pytest.mark.ansible(inventory='good:bad') def test_inventory_unreachable(ansible_module): exc_info = pytest.raises(pytest_ansible.AnsibleHostUnreachable, ansible_module.ping) (contacted, dark) = exc_info.value.results # inspect the JSON result... for (host, result) in contacted.items(): assert result['ping'] == 'pong' for (host, result) in dark.items(): assert result['failed'] == True
Contributions are very welcome. Tests can be run with tox, please ensure the coverage at least stays the same before you submit a pull request.
Distributed under the terms of the MIT license, "pytest-ansible" is free and open source software
If you encounter any problems, please file an issue along with a detailed description.