Collection of utilities for publishing packages on PyPI


License
Apache-2.0
Install
pip install twine==3.1.1

Documentation

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twine

Twine is a utility for publishing Python packages on PyPI.

It provides build system independent uploads of source and binary distribution artifacts for both new and existing projects.

Why Should I Use This?

The goal of twine is to improve PyPI interaction by improving security and testability.

The biggest reason to use twine is that it securely authenticates you to PyPI over HTTPS using a verified connection, regardless of the underlying Python version. Meanwhile, python setup.py upload will only work correctly and securely if your build system, Python version, and underlying operating system are configured properly.

Secondly, twine encourages you to build your distribution files. python setup.py upload only allows you to upload a package as a final step after building with distutils or setuptools, within the same command invocation. This means that you cannot test the exact file you're going to upload to PyPI to ensure that it works before uploading it.

Finally, twine allows you to pre-sign your files and pass the .asc files into the command line invocation (twine upload myproject-1.0.1.tar.gz myproject-1.0.1.tar.gz.asc). This enables you to be assured that you're typing your gpg passphrase into gpg itself and not anything else, since you will be the one directly executing gpg --detach-sign -a <filename>.

Features

  • Verified HTTPS connections
  • Uploading doesn't require executing setup.py
  • Uploading files that have already been created, allowing testing of distributions before release
  • Supports uploading any packaging format (including wheels)

Installation

$ pip install twine

Using Twine

  1. Create some distributions in the normal way:

    $ python setup.py sdist bdist_wheel

2. Upload with twine to Test PyPI and verify things look right. Twine will automatically prompt for your username and password:

$ twine upload --repository-url https://test.pypi.org/legacy/ dist/*
username: ...
password:
...
  1. Upload to PyPI:

    $ twine upload dist/*
  2. Done!

More documentation on using twine to upload packages to PyPI is in the Python Packaging User Guide.

Keyring Support

Instead of typing in your password every time you upload a distribution, Twine allows storing a username and password securely using keyring. Keyring is installed with Twine but for some systems (Linux mainly) may require additional installation steps.

Once Twine is installed, use the keyring program to set a username and password to use for each package index (repository) to which you may upload.

For example, to set a username and password for PyPI:

$ keyring set https://upload.pypi.org/legacy/ your-username
# or
$ python3 -m keyring set https://upload.pypi.org/legacy/ your-username

And enter the password when prompted.

For a different repository, replace the URL with the relevant repository URL. For example, for Test PyPI, use https://test.pypi.org/legacy/.

The next time you run twine, it will prompt you for a username and will grab the appropriate password from the keyring.

Note

If you are using Linux in a headless environment (such as on a server) you'll need to do some additional steps to ensure that Keyring can store secrets securely. See Using Keyring on headless systems.

Disabling Keyring

In most cases, simply not setting a password in keyring will allow twine to fall back to prompting for a password. In some cases, the presence of keyring will cause unexpected or undesirable prompts from the backing system. In these cases, it may be desirable to disable keyring altogether. To disable keyring, simply invoke:

$ keyring --disable
or
$ python -m keyring --disable

That command will configure for the current user the "null" keyring, effectively disabling the functionality, and allowing Twine to prompt for passwords.

See twine 338 for discussion and background.

Options

twine upload

Uploads one or more distributions to a repository.

$ twine upload -h

usage: twine upload [-h] [-r REPOSITORY] [--repository-url REPOSITORY_URL]
                    [-s] [--sign-with SIGN_WITH] [-i IDENTITY] [-u USERNAME]
                    [-p PASSWORD] [-c COMMENT] [--config-file CONFIG_FILE]
                    [--skip-existing] [--cert path] [--client-cert path]
                    [--verbose] [--disable-progress-bar]
                    dist [dist ...]

positional arguments:
  dist                  The distribution files to upload to the repository
                        (package index). Usually dist/* . May additionally
                        contain a .asc file to include an existing signature
                        with the file upload.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -r REPOSITORY, --repository REPOSITORY
                        The repository (package index) to upload the package
                        to. Should be a section in the config file (default:
                        pypi). (Can also be set via TWINE_REPOSITORY
                        environment variable.)
  --repository-url REPOSITORY_URL
                        The repository (package index) URL to upload the
                        package to. This overrides --repository. (Can also be
                        set via TWINE_REPOSITORY_URL environment variable.)
  -s, --sign            Sign files to upload using GPG.
  --sign-with SIGN_WITH
                        GPG program used to sign uploads (default: gpg).
  -i IDENTITY, --identity IDENTITY
                        GPG identity used to sign files.
  -u USERNAME, --username USERNAME
                        The username to authenticate to the repository
                        (package index) as. (Can also be set via
                        TWINE_USERNAME environment variable.)
  -p PASSWORD, --password PASSWORD
                        The password to authenticate to the repository
                        (package index) with. (Can also be set via
                        TWINE_PASSWORD environment variable.)
  --non-interactive     Do not interactively prompt for username/password
                        if the required credentials are missing. (Can also
                        be set via TWINE_NON_INTERACTIVE environment
                        variable.)
  -c COMMENT, --comment COMMENT
                        The comment to include with the distribution file.
  --config-file CONFIG_FILE
                        The .pypirc config file to use.
  --skip-existing       Continue uploading files if one already exists. (Only
                        valid when uploading to PyPI. Other implementations
                        may not support this.)
  --cert path           Path to alternate CA bundle (can also be set via
                        TWINE_CERT environment variable).
  --client-cert path    Path to SSL client certificate, a single file
                        containing the private key and the certificate in PEM
                        format.
  --verbose             Show verbose output.
  --disable-progress-bar
                        Disable the progress bar.

twine check

Checks whether your distribution's long description will render correctly on PyPI.

$ twine check -h
usage: twine check [-h] dist [dist ...]

positional arguments:
dist        The distribution files to check, usually dist/*

optional arguments:
-h, --help  show this help message and exit

twine register

WARNING: The register command is no longer necessary if you are uploading to pypi.org. As such, it is no longer supported in Warehouse (the new PyPI software running on pypi.org). However, you may need this if you are using a different package index.

For completeness, its usage:

$ twine register -h

usage: twine register [-h] -r REPOSITORY [--repository-url REPOSITORY_URL]
                      [-u USERNAME] [-p PASSWORD] [-c COMMENT]
                      [--config-file CONFIG_FILE] [--cert path]
                      [--client-cert path]
                      package

positional arguments:
  package               File from which we read the package metadata.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -r REPOSITORY, --repository REPOSITORY
                        The repository (package index) to register the package
                        to. Should be a section in the config file. (Can also
                        be set via TWINE_REPOSITORY environment variable.)
                        Initial package registration no longer necessary on
                        pypi.org:
                        https://packaging.python.org/guides/migrating-to-pypi-
                        org/
  --repository-url REPOSITORY_URL
                        The repository (package index) URL to register the
                        package to. This overrides --repository. (Can also be
                        set via TWINE_REPOSITORY_URL environment variable.)
  -u USERNAME, --username USERNAME
                        The username to authenticate to the repository
                        (package index) as. (Can also be set via
                        TWINE_USERNAME environment variable.)
  -p PASSWORD, --password PASSWORD
                        The password to authenticate to the repository
                        (package index) with. (Can also be set via
                        TWINE_PASSWORD environment variable.)
  --non-interactive     Do not interactively prompt for username/password
                        if the required credentials are missing. (Can also
                        be set via TWINE_NON_INTERACTIVE environment
                        variable.)
  -c COMMENT, --comment COMMENT
                        The comment to include with the distribution file.
  --config-file CONFIG_FILE
                        The .pypirc config file to use.
  --cert path           Path to alternate CA bundle (can also be set via
                        TWINE_CERT environment variable).
  --client-cert path    Path to SSL client certificate, a single file
                        containing the private key and the certificate in PEM
                        format.

Environment Variables

Twine also supports configuration via environment variables. Options passed on the command line will take precedence over options set via environment variables. Definition via environment variable is helpful in environments where it is not convenient to create a .pypirc file, such as a CI/build server, for example.

  • TWINE_USERNAME - the username to use for authentication to the repository.
  • TWINE_PASSWORD - the password to use for authentication to the repository.
  • TWINE_REPOSITORY - the repository configuration, either defined as a section in .pypirc or provided as a full URL.
  • TWINE_REPOSITORY_URL - the repository URL to use.
  • TWINE_CERT - custom CA certificate to use for repositories with self-signed or untrusted certificates.
  • TWINE_NON_INTERACTIVE - Do not interactively prompt for username/password if the required credentials are missing.

Resources

Contributing

See our developer documentation for how to get started, an architectural overview, and our future development plans.

Code of Conduct

Everyone interacting in the twine project's codebases, issue trackers, chat rooms, and mailing lists is expected to follow the PyPA Code of Conduct.