Documentation

NAME

Firefox::Marionette - Automate the Firefox browser with the Marionette protocol

VERSION

Version 1.05

SYNOPSIS

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

say $firefox->find_tag('title')->property('innerHTML'); # same as $firefox->title();

say $firefox->html();

$firefox->find_class('container-fluid')->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

say "Height of search box is " . $firefox->find_class('container-fluid')->css('height');

my $file_handle = $firefox->selfie();

$firefox->find('//button[@name="lucky"]')->click();

$firefox->await(sub { $firefox->interactive() && $firefox->find_partial('Download') })->click();

DESCRIPTION

This is a client module to automate the Mozilla Firefox browser via the Marionette protocol

SUBROUTINES/METHODS

accept_alert

accepts a currently displayed modal message box

accept_connections

Enables or disables accepting new socket connections. By calling this method with false the server will not accept any further connections, but existing connections will not be forcible closed. Use true to re-enable accepting connections.

Please note that when closing the connection via the client you can end-up in a non-recoverable state if it hasn't been enabled before.

active_element

returns the active element of the current browsing context's document element, if the document element is non-null.

add_cookie

accepts a single cookie object as the first parameter and adds it to the current cookie jar. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

This method throws an exception if you try to add a cookie for a different domain than the current document.

add_header

accepts a hash of HTTP headers to include in every future HTTP Request.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use UUID();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();
my $uuid = UUID::uuid();
$firefox->add_header( 'Track-my-automated-tests' => $uuid );
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/');

these headers are added to any existing headers. To clear headers, see the delete_header method

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->delete_header( 'Accept' )->add_header( 'Accept' => 'text/perl' )->go('https://metacpan.org/');

will only send out an Accept header that looks like Accept: text/perl.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->add_header( 'Accept' => 'text/perl' )->go('https://metacpan.org/');

by itself, will send out an Accept header that may resemble Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8, text/perl. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

add_site_header

accepts a host name and a hash of HTTP headers to include in every future HTTP Request that is being sent to that particular host.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use UUID();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();
my $uuid = UUID::uuid();
$firefox->add_site_header( 'metacpan.org', 'Track-my-automated-tests' => $uuid );
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/');

these headers are added to any existing headers going to the metacpan.org site, but no other site. To clear site headers, see the delete_site_header method

addons

returns if pre-existing addons (extensions/themes) are allowed to run. This will be true for Firefox versions less than 55, as -safe-mode cannot be automated.

alert_text

Returns the message shown in a currently displayed modal message box

alive

This method returns true or false depending on if the Firefox process is still running.

application_type

returns the application type for the Marionette protocol. Should be 'gecko'.

async_script

accepts a scalar containing a javascript function that is executed in the browser. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

The executing javascript is subject to the script timeout, which, by default is 30 seconds.

attribute

accepts an element as the first parameter and a scalar attribute name as the second parameter. It returns the initial value of the attribute with the supplied name. This method will return the initial content, the property method will return the current content.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
my $element = $firefox->find_id('search_input');
!defined $element->attribute('value') or die "attribute is not defined!");
$element->type('Test::More');
!defined $element->attribute('value') or die "attribute is still not defined!");

await

accepts a subroutine reference as a parameter and then executes the subroutine. If a not found exception is thrown, this method will sleep for sleep_time_in_ms milliseconds and then execute the subroutine again. When the subroutine executes successfully, it will return what the subroutine returns.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new(sleep_time_in_ms => 5)->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

$firefox->find_name('lucky')->click();

$firefox->await(sub { $firefox->interactive() && $firefox->find_partial('Download') })->click();

back

causes the browser to traverse one step backward in the joint history of the current browsing context. The browser will wait for the one step backward to complete or the session's page_load duration to elapse before returning, which, by default is 5 minutes. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

browser_version

This method returns the current version of firefox.

bye

accepts a subroutine reference as a parameter and then executes the subroutine. If the subroutine executes successfully, this method will sleep for sleep_time_in_ms milliseconds and then execute the subroutine again. When a not found exception is thrown, this method will return itself to aid in chaining methods.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

$firefox->find_name('lucky')->click();

$firefox->bye(sub { $firefox->find_name('lucky') })->await(sub { $firefox->interactive() && $firefox->find_partial('Download') })->click();

capabilities

returns the capabilities of the current firefox binary. You can retrieve timeouts or a proxy with this method.

child_error

This method returns the $? (CHILD_ERROR) for the Firefox process, or undefined if the process has not yet exited.

chrome_window_handle

returns an server-assigned integer identifiers for the current chrome window that uniquely identifies it within this Marionette instance. This can be used to switch to this window at a later point. This corresponds to a window that may itself contain tabs.

chrome_window_handles

returns identifiers for each open chrome window for tests interested in managing a set of chrome windows and tabs separately.

clear

accepts a element as the first parameter and clears any user supplied input

click

accepts a element as the first parameter and sends a 'click' to it. The browser will wait for any page load to complete or the session's page_load duration to elapse before returning, which, by default is 5 minutes. The click method is also used to choose an option in a select dropdown.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new(visible => 1)->go('https://ebay.com');
my $select = $firefox->find_tag('select');
foreach my $option ($select->find_tag('option')) {
    if ($option->property('value') == 58058) { # Computers/Tablets & Networking
        $option->click();
    }
}

close_current_chrome_window_handle

closes the current chrome window (that is the entire window, not just the tabs). It returns a list of still available chrome window handles. You will need to switch_to_window to use another window.

close_current_window_handle

closes the current window/tab. It returns a list of still available window/tab handles.

context

accepts a string as the first parameter, which may be either 'content' or 'chrome'. It returns the context type that is Marionette's current target for browsing context scoped commands.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();
my $old_context = $firefox->context('chrome');
$firefox->script(...); # running script in chrome context
$firefox->context($old_context);

cookies

returns the contents of the cookie jar in scalar or list context.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://github.com');
foreach my $cookie ($firefox->cookies()) {
    if (defined $cookie->same_site()) {
        say "Cookie " . $cookie->name() . " has a SameSite of " . $cookie->same_site();
    } else {
        warn "Cookie " . $cookie->name() . " does not have the SameSite attribute defined";
    }
}

css

accepts an element as the first parameter and a scalar CSS property name as the second parameter. It returns the value of the computed style for that property.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
say $firefox->find_id('search-input')->css('height');

current_chrome_window_handle

see chrome_window_handle.

delete_cookie

deletes a single cookie by name. Accepts a scalar containing the cookie name as a parameter. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://github.com');
foreach my $cookie ($firefox->cookies()) {
    warn "Cookie " . $cookie->name() . " is being deleted";
    $firefox->delete_cookie($cookie->name());
}
foreach my $cookie ($firefox->cookies()) {
    die "Should be no cookies here now";
}

delete_cookies

here be cookie monsters! This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

delete_header

accepts a list of HTTP header names to delete from future HTTP Requests.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();
$firefox->delete_header( 'User-Agent', 'Accept', 'Accept-Encoding' );

will remove the User-Agent, Accept and Accept-Encoding headers from all future requests

This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

delete_session

deletes the current WebDriver session.

delete_site_header

accepts a host name and a list of HTTP headers names to delete from future HTTP Requests.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();
$firefox->delete_header( 'metacpan.org', 'User-Agent', 'Accept', 'Accept-Encoding' );

will remove the User-Agent, Accept and Accept-Encoding headers from all future requests to metacpan.org.

This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

developer

returns true if the current version of firefox is a developer edition (does the minor version number end with an 'b\d+'?) version.

dismiss_alert

dismisses a currently displayed modal message box

download

accepts a filesystem path and returns a matching filehandle. This is trivial for locally running firefox, but sufficiently complex to justify the method for a remote firefox running over ssh.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new( host => '10.1.2.3' )->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find_class('container-fluid')->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

$firefox->find('//button[@name="lucky"]')->click();

$firefox->await(sub { $firefox->interactive() && $firefox->find_partial('Download') })->click();

while(!$firefox->downloads()) { sleep 1 }

foreach my $path ($firefox->downloads()) {

    my $handle = $firefox->download($path);

    # do something with downloaded file handle

}

downloading

returns true if any files in downloads end in .part

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find_class('container-fluid')->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

$firefox->find('//button[@name="lucky"]')->click();

$firefox->await(sub { $firefox->interactive() && $firefox->find_partial('Download') })->click();

while(!$firefox->downloads()) { sleep 1 }

while($firefox->downloading()) { sleep 1 }

foreach my $path ($firefox->downloads()) {
    say $path;
}

downloads

returns a list of file paths (including partial downloads) of downloads during this Firefox session.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find_class('container-fluid')->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

$firefox->find('//button[@name="lucky"]')->click();

$firefox->await(sub { $firefox->interactive() && $firefox->find_partial('Download') })->click();

while(!$firefox->downloads()) { sleep 1 }

foreach my $path ($firefox->downloads()) {
    say $path;
}

error_message

This method returns a human readable error message describing how the Firefox process exited (assuming it started okay). On Win32 platforms this information is restricted to exit code.

execute

This utility method executes a command with arguments and returns STDOUT as a chomped string. It is a simple method only intended for the Firefox::Marionette::* modules.

find

accepts an xpath expression as the first parameter and returns the first element that matches this expression.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find('//input[@id="search-input"]')->type('Test::More');

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find('//input[@id="search-input"]')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has method.

find_id

accepts an id as the first parameter and returns the first element with a matching 'id' property.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

$firefox->find_id('search-input')->type('Test::More');

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_id('search-input')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_id method.

find_name

This method returns the first element with a matching 'name' property.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_name('q')->type('Test::More');

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_name('q')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_name method.

find_class

accepts a class name as the first parameter and returns the first element with a matching 'class' property.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_class('form-control home-search-input')->type('Test::More');

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_class('form-control home-search-input')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_class method.

find_selector

accepts a CSS Selector as the first parameter and returns the first element that matches that selector.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_selector('input.home-search-input')->type('Test::More');

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_selector('input.home-search-input')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_selector method.

find_tag

accepts a tag name as the first parameter and returns the first element with this tag name.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
my $element = $firefox->find_tag('input');

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_tag('input')) {
    # do something
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_tag method.

find_link

accepts a text string as the first parameter and returns the first link element that has a matching link text.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_link('API')->click();

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_link('API')) {
    $element->click();
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_link method.

find_partial

accepts a text string as the first parameter and returns the first link element that has a partially matching link text.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_partial('AP')->click();

# OR in list context 

foreach my $element ($firefox->find_partial('AP')) {
    $element->click();
}

If no elements are found, a not found exception will be thrown. For the same functionality that returns undef if no elements are found, see the has_partial method.

forward

causes the browser to traverse one step forward in the joint history of the current browsing context. The browser will wait for the one step forward to complete or the session's page_load duration to elapse before returning, which, by default is 5 minutes. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

full_screen

full screens the firefox window. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

go

Navigates the current browsing context to the given URI and waits for the document to load or the session's page_load duration to elapse before returning, which, by default is 5 minutes.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/'); # will only return when metacpan.org is FULLY loaded (including all images / js / css)

To make the go method return quicker, you need to set the page load strategy capability to an appropriate value, such as below;

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new( capabilities => Firefox::Marionette::Capabilities->new( page_load_strategy => 'eager' ));
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/'); # will return once the main document has been loaded and parsed, but BEFORE sub-resources (images/stylesheets/frames) have been loaded.

This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

har

returns a hashref representing the http archive of the session. This function is subject to the script timeout, which, by default is 30 seconds. It is also possible for the function to hang (until the script timeout) if the original devtools window is closed. The hashref has been designed to be accepted by the Archive::Har module. This function should be considered experimental. Feedback welcome.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use Archive::Har();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new(visible => 1, debug => 1, har => 1);

$firefox->go("http://metacpan.org/");

$firefox->find('//input[@id="search-input"]')->type('Test::More');
$firefox->find_name('lucky')->click();

my $har = Archive::Har->new();
$har->hashref($firefox->har());

foreach my $entry ($har->entries()) {
    say $entry->request()->url() . " spent " . $entry->timings()->connect() . " ms establishing a TCP connection";
}

has

accepts an xpath expression as the first parameter and returns the first element that matches this expression.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

if (my $element = $firefox->has('//input[@id="search-input"]')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find method.

has_id

accepts an id as the first parameter and returns the first element with a matching 'id' property.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

if (my $element = $firefox->has_id('search-input')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_id method.

has_name

This method returns the first element with a matching 'name' property.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
if (my $element = $firefox->has_name('q')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_name method.

has_class

accepts a class name as the first parameter and returns the first element with a matching 'class' property.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
if (my $element = $firefox->has_class('form-control home-search-input')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_class method.

has_selector

accepts a CSS Selector as the first parameter and returns the first element that matches that selector.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
if (my $element = $firefox->has_selector('input.home-search-input')) {
    $element->type('Test::More');
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_selector method.

has_tag

accepts a tag name as the first parameter and returns the first element with this tag name.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
if (my $element = $firefox->has_tag('input')) {
    # do something
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_tag method.

has_link

accepts a text string as the first parameter and returns the first link element that has a matching link text.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
if (my $element = $firefox->has_link('API')) {
    $element->click();
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_link method.

has_partial

accepts a text string as the first parameter and returns the first link element that has a partially matching link text.

This method is subject to the implicit timeout, which, by default is 0 seconds.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
if (my $element = $firefox->find_partial('AP')) {
    $element->click();
}

If no elements are found, this method will return undef. For the same functionality that throws a not found exception, see the find_partial method.

html

returns the page source of the content document. This page source can be wrapped in html that firefox provides. See the json method for an alternative when dealing with response content types such as application/json and strip for an alterative when dealing with other non-html content types such as text/plain.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

say Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/')->html();

install

accepts the following as the first parameter;

and an optional true/false second parameter to indicate if the xpi file should be a temporary extension (just for the existance of this browser instance). Unsigned xpi files may only be loaded temporarily (except for nightly firefox installations). It returns the GUID for the addon which may be used as a parameter to the uninstall method.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();

my $extension_id = $firefox->install('/full/path/to/gnu_terry_pratchett-0.4-an+fx.xpi');

# OR downloading and installing source code

system { 'git' } 'git', 'clone', 'https://github.com/kkapsner/CanvasBlocker.git';

if ($firefox->nightly()) {

    $extension_id = $firefox->install('./CanvasBlocker'); # permanent install for unsigned packages in nightly firefox

} else {

    $extension_id = $firefox->install('./CanvasBlocker', 1); # temp install for normal firefox

}

interactive

returns true if document.readyState === "interactive" or if loaded is true

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_id('search_input')->type('Type::More');
$firefox->find('//button[@name="lucky"]')->click();
while(!$firefox->interactive()) {
    # redirecting to Test::More page
}

is_displayed

accepts an element as the first parameter. This method returns true or false depending on if the element is displayed.

is_enabled

accepts an element as the first parameter. This method returns true or false depending on if the element is enabled.

is_selected

accepts an element as the first parameter. This method returns true or false depending on if the element is selected. Note that this method only makes sense for checkbox or radio inputs or option elements in a select dropdown.

json

returns a JSON object that has been parsed from the page source of the content document. This is a convenience method that wraps the strip method.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

say Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://fastapi.metacpan.org/v1/download_url/Firefox::Marionette")->json()->{version};

loaded

returns true if document.readyState === "complete"

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
$firefox->find_id('search_input')->type('Type::More');
$firefox->find('//button[@name="lucky"]')->click();
while(!$firefox->loaded()) {
    # redirecting to Test::More page
}

marionette_protocol

returns the version for the Marionette protocol. Current most recent version is '3'.

maximise

maximises the firefox window. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

mime_types

returns a list of MIME types that will be downloaded by firefox and made available from the downloads method

use Firefox::Marionette();
use v5.10;

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new(mime_types => [ 'application/pkcs10' ])

foreach my $mime_type ($firefox->mime_types()) {
    say $mime_type;
}

minimise

minimises the firefox window. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

new

accepts an optional hash as a parameter. Allowed keys are below;

  • addons - should any firefox extensions and themes be available in this session. This defaults to "0".
  • capabilities - use the supplied capabilities object, for example to set whether the browser should accept insecure certs or whether the browser should use a proxy.
  • chatty - Firefox is extremely chatty on the network, including checking for the lastest malware/phishing sites, updates to firefox/etc. This option is therefore off ("0") by default, however, it can be switched on ("1") if required. Even with chatty switched off, connections to firefox.settings.services.mozilla.com will still be made. The only way to prevent this seems to be to set firefox.settings.services.mozilla.com to 127.0.0.1 via /etc/hosts. NOTE: that this option only works when profile_name/profile is not specified.
  • console - show the browser console when the browser is launched.
  • debug - should firefox's debug to be available via STDERR. This defaults to "0". Any ssh connections will also be printed to STDERR.
  • developer - only allow a developer edition to be launched.
  • firefox - use the specified path to the Firefox binary, rather than the default path.
  • height - set the height of the initial firefox window
  • har - begin the session with the devtools window opened in a separate window. The HAR Export Trigger addon will be loaded into the new session automatically, which means that -safe-mode will not be activated for this session AND this functionality will only be available for Firefox 61+.
  • host - use ssh to create and automate firefox on the specified host. See REMOTE AUTOMATION OF FIREFOX VIA SSH.
  • implicit - a shortcut to allow directly providing the implicit timeout, instead of needing to use timeouts from the capabilities parameter. Overrides all longer ways.
  • mime_types - any MIME types that Firefox will encounter during this session. MIME types that are not specified will result in a hung browser (the File Download popup will appear).
  • nightly - only allow a nightly release to be launched.
  • port - if the "host" parameter is also set, use ssh to create and automate firefox via the specified port. See REMOTE AUTOMATION OF FIREFOX VIA SSH.
  • page_load - a shortcut to allow directly providing the page_load timeout, instead of needing to use timeouts from the capabilities parameter. Overrides all longer ways.
  • profile - create a new profile based on the supplied profile. NOTE: firefox ignores any changes made to the profile on the disk while it is running.
  • profile_name - pick a specific existing profile to automate, rather than creating a new profile. Firefox refuses to allow more than one instance of a profile to run at the same time. Profile names can be obtained by using the Firefox::Marionette::Profile::names() method. NOTE: firefox ignores any changes made to the profile on the disk while it is running.
  • reconnect - an experimental parameter to allow a reconnection to firefox that a connection has been discontinued. See the survive parameter.
  • script - a shortcut to allow directly providing the script timeout, instead of needing to use timeouts from the capabilities parameter. Overrides all longer ways.
  • seer - this option is switched off "0" by default. When it is switched on "1", it will activate the various speculative and pre-fetch options for firefox. NOTE: that this option only works when profile_name/profile is not specified.
  • sleep_time_in_ms - the amount of time (in milliseconds) that this module should sleep when unsuccessfully calling the subroutine provided to the await or bye methods. This defaults to "1" millisecond.
  • survive - if this is set to a true value, firefox will not automatically exit when the object goes out of scope. See the reconnect parameter for an experimental technique for reconnecting.
  • trust - give a path to a root certificate that will be trusted for this session. The certificate will be imported by the NSS certutil binary. If this binary does not exist in the PATH, an exception will be thrown. For Linux/BSD systems, NSS certutil should be available via your package manager. For OS X and Windows based platforms, it will be more difficult.
  • timeouts - a shortcut to allow directly providing a timeout object, instead of needing to use timeouts from the capabilities parameter. Overrides the timeouts provided (if any) in the capabilities parameter.
  • port - if the "host" parameter is also set, use ssh to create and automate firefox with the specified user. See REMOTE AUTOMATION OF FIREFOX VIA SSH.
  • visible - should firefox be visible on the desktop. This defaults to "0".
  • waterfox - only allow a binary that looks like a waterfox version to be launched.
  • width - set the width of the initial firefox window

This method returns a new Firefox::Marionette object, connected to an instance of firefox. In a non MacOS/Win32/Cygwin environment, if necessary (no DISPLAY variable can be found and the visible parameter to the new method has been set to true) and possible (Xvfb can be executed successfully), this method will also automatically start an Xvfb instance.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $remote_darwin_firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new(
                 debug => 1,
                 host => '10.1.2.3',
                 trust => '/path/to/root_ca.pem',
                 firefox => '/Applications/Firefox.app/Contents/MacOS/firefox'
                                                    ); # start a temporary profile for a remote firefox and load a new CA into the temp profile
...

foreach my $profile_name (Firefox::Marionette::Profile->names()) {
    my $firefox_with_existing_profile = Firefox::Marionette->new( profile_name => $profile_name, visible => 1 );
    ...
}

new_window

accepts an optional hash as the parameter. Allowed keys are below;

  • focus - a boolean field representing if the new window be opened in the foreground (focused) or background (not focused). Defaults to false.
  • private - a boolean field representing if the new window should be a private window. Defaults to false.
  • type - the type of the new window. Can be one of 'tab' or 'window'. Defaults to 'tab'.

Returns the window handle for the new window.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();

my $window_handle = $firefox->new_window(type => 'tab');

$firefox->switch_to_window($window_handle);

new_session

creates a new WebDriver session. It is expected that the caller performs the necessary checks on the requested capabilities to be WebDriver conforming. The WebDriver service offered by Marionette does not match or negotiate capabilities beyond type and bounds checks.

nightly

returns true if the current version of firefox is a nightly release (does the minor version number end with an 'a1'?)

paper_sizes

returns a list of all the recognised names for paper sizes, such as A4 or LEGAL.

pdf

returns a File::Temp object containing a PDF encoded version of the current page for printing.

accepts a optional hash as the first parameter with the following allowed keys;

  • landscape - Paper orientation. Boolean value. Defaults to false

  • margin - A hash describing the margins. The hash may have the following optional keys, 'top', 'left', 'right' and 'bottom'. All these keys are in cm and default to 1 (~0.4 inches)

  • page - A hash describing the page. The hash may have the following keys; 'height' and 'width'. Both keys are in cm and default to US letter size. See the 'size' key.

  • print_background - Print background graphics. Boolean value. Defaults to false.

  • raw - rather than a file handle containing the PDF, the binary PDF will be returned.

  • scale - Scale of the webpage rendering. Defaults to 1.

  • size - The desired size (width and height) of the pdf, specified by name. See the page key for an alternative and the paper_sizes method for a list of accepted page size names.

  • shrink_to_fit - Whether or not to override page size as defined by CSS. Boolean value. Defaults to true.

    use Firefox::Marionette();

    my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/'); my $handle = $firefox->pdf(); foreach my $paper_size ($firefox->paper_sizes()) { $handle = $firefox->pdf(size => $paper_size, landscape => 1, margin => { top => 0.5, left => 1.5 }); ... print $firefox->pdf(page => { width => 21, height => 27 }, raw => 1); ... }

property

accepts an element as the first parameter and a scalar attribute name as the second parameter. It returns the current value of the property with the supplied name. This method will return the current content, the attribute method will return the initial content.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');
my $element = $firefox->find_id('search_input');
$element->property('value') eq '' or die "Initial property is the empty string";
$element->type('Test::More');
$element->property('value') eq 'Test::More' or die "This property should have changed!";

# OR getting the innerHTML property

my $title = $firefox->find_tag('title')->property('innerHTML'); # same as $firefox->title();

quit

Marionette will stop accepting new connections before ending the current session, and finally attempting to quit the application. This method returns the $? (CHILD_ERROR) value for the Firefox process

rect

accepts a element as the first parameter and returns the current position and size of the element

refresh

refreshes the current page. The browser will wait for the page to completely refresh or the session's page_load duration to elapse before returning, which, by default is 5 minutes. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

screen_orientation

returns the current browser orientation. This will be one of the valid primary orientation values 'portrait-primary', 'landscape-primary', 'portrait-secondary', or 'landscape-secondary'. This method is only currently available on Android (Fennec).

script

accepts a scalar containing a javascript function body that is executed in the browser, and an optional hash as a second parameter. Allowed keys are below;

  • args - The reference to a list is the arguments passed to the function body.
  • filename - Filename of the client's program where this script is evaluated.
  • line - Line in the client's program where this script is evaluated.
  • new - Forces the script to be evaluated in a fresh sandbox. Note that if it is undefined, the script will normally be evaluted in a fresh sandbox.
  • sandbox - Name of the sandbox to evaluate the script in. The sandbox is cached for later re-use on the same window object if new is false. If he parameter is undefined, the script is evaluated in a mutable sandbox. If the parameter is "system", it will be evaluted in a sandbox with elevated system privileges, equivalent to chrome space.
  • timeout - A timeout to override the default script timeout, which, by default is 30 seconds.

Returns the result of the javascript function.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new()->go('https://metacpan.org/');

if ($firefox->script('return window.find("lucky");')) {
    # luckily!
}

my $search_input = $firefox->find_by_id('search-input');

$firefox->script('arguments[0].style.backgroundColor = "red"', args => [ $search_input ]); # turn the search input box red

The executing javascript is subject to the script timeout, which, by default is 30 seconds.

selfie

returns a File::Temp object containing a lossless PNG image screenshot. If an element is passed as a parameter, the screenshot will be restricted to the element.

If an element is not passed as a parameter and the current context is 'chrome', a screenshot of the current viewport will be returned.

If an element is not passed as a parameter and the current context is 'content', a screenshot of the current frame will be returned.

The parameters after the element parameter are taken to be a optional hash with the following allowed keys;

  • hash - return a SHA256 hex encoded digest of the PNG image rather than the image itself
  • full - take a screenshot of the whole document unless the first element parameter has been supplied.
  • raw - rather than a file handle containing the screenshot, the binary PNG image will be returned.
  • scroll - scroll to the element supplied
  • highlights - a reference to a list containing elements to draw a highlight around. Not available in Firefox 70 onwards.

send_alert_text

sends keys to the input field of a currently displayed modal message box

sleep_time_in_ms

accepts a new time to sleep in await or bye methods and returns the previous time. The default time is "1" millisecond.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new(sleep_time_in_ms => 5); # setting default time to 5 milliseconds

my $old_time_in_ms = $firefox->sleep_time_in_ms(8); # setting default time to 8 milliseconds, returning 5 (milliseconds)

strip

returns the page source of the content document after an attempt has been made to remove typical firefox html wrappers of non html content types such as text/plain and application/json. See the json method for an alternative when dealing with response content types such as application/json and html for an alterative when dealing with html content types. This is a convenience method that wraps the html method.

use Firefox::Marionette();
use JSON();
use v5.10;

say JSON::decode_json(Firefox::Marionette->new()->go("https://fastapi.metacpan.org/v1/download_url/Firefox::Marionette")->strip())->{version};

Note that this method will assume the bytes it receives from the html method are UTF-8 encoded and will translate accordingly, throwing an exception in the process if the bytes are not UTF-8 encoded.

switch_to_frame

accepts a frame as a parameter and switches to it within the current window.

switch_to_parent_frame

set the current browsing context for future commands to the parent of the current browsing context

switch_to_window

accepts a window handle (either the result of window_handles or a window name as a parameter and switches focus to this window.

tag_name

accepts a Firefox::Marionette::Element object as the first parameter and returns the relevant tag name. For example 'a' or 'input'.

text

accepts a element as the first parameter and returns the text that is contained by that element (if any)

timeouts

returns the current timeouts for page loading, searching, and scripts.

title

returns the current title of the window.

type

accepts an element as the first parameter and a string as the second parameter. It sends the string to the specified element in the current page, such as filling out a text box. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

uninstall

accepts the GUID for the addon to uninstall. The GUID is returned when from the install method. This method returns itself to aid in chaining methods.

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new();

my $extension_id = $firefox->install('/full/path/to/gnu_terry_pratchett-0.4-an+fx.xpi');

# do something

$firefox->uninstall($extension_id); # not recommended to uninstall this extension IRL.

uri

returns the current URI of current top level browsing context for Desktop. It is equivalent to the javascript document.location.href

window_handle

returns the current window's handle. On desktop this typically corresponds to the currently selected tab. returns an opaque server-assigned identifier to this window that uniquely identifies it within this Marionette instance. This can be used to switch to this window at a later point.

window_handles

returns a list of top-level browsing contexts. On desktop this typically corresponds to the set of open tabs for browser windows, or the window itself for non-browser chrome windows. Each window handle is assigned by the server and is guaranteed unique, however the return array does not have a specified ordering.

window_rect

accepts an optional position and size as a parameter, sets the current browser window to that position and size and returns the previous position, size and state of the browser window. If no parameter is supplied, it returns the current position, size and state of the browser window.

window_type

returns the current window's type. This should be 'navigator:browser'.

xvfb_pid

returns the pid of the xvfb process if it exists.

xvfb_display

returns the value for the DISPLAY environment variable if one has been generated for the xvfb environment.

xvfb_xauthority

returns the value for the XAUTHORITY environment variable if one has been generated for the xvfb environment

REMOTE AUTOMATION OF FIREFOX VIA SSH

use Firefox::Marionette();

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new( host => 'remote.example.org', debug => 1 );
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/');

# OR specify a different user to login as ...

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new( host => 'remote.example.org', user => 'R2D2', debug => 1 );
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/');

# OR specify a different port to connect to

my $firefox = Firefox::Marionette->new( host => 'remote.example.org', port => 2222, debug => 1 );
$firefox->go('https://metacpan.org/');

This module has support for creating and automating an instance of Firefox on a remote node. It has been tested against a number of operating systems, including recent version of Windows 10 or Windows Server 2019, OS X, and Linux and BSD distributions. It expects to be able to login to the remote node via public key authentication. It can be further secured via the command option in the OpenSSH authorized_keys file such as;

no-agent-forwarding,no-pty,no-X11-forwarding,permitopen="127.0.0.1:*",command="/usr/local/bin/ssh-auth-cmd-marionette" ssh-rsa AAAA ... == user@server

As an example, the ssh-auth-cmd-marionette command is provided as part of this distribution.

When using ssh, Firefox::Marionette will attempt to pass the TMPDIR environment variable across the ssh connection to make cleanups easier. In order to allow this, the AcceptEnv setting in the remote sshd configuration should be set to allow TMPDIR, which will look like;

AcceptEnv TMPDIR

This module uses ControlMaster functionality when using ssh, for a useful speedup of executing remote commands. Unfortunately, when using ssh to move from a cygwin, Windows 10 or Windows Server 2019 node to a remote environment, we cannot use ControlMaster, because at this time, Windows does not support ControlMaster and therefore this type of automation is still possible, but slower than other client platforms.

DIAGNOSTICS

  • Failed to correctly setup the Firefox process

    The module was unable to retrieve a session id and capabilities from Firefox when it requests a new_session as part of the initial setup of the connection to Firefox.

  • Failed to correctly determined the Firefox process id through the initial connection capabilities

    The module was found that firefox is reporting through it's Capabilities object a different process id than this module was using. This is probably a bug in this module's logic. Please report as described in the BUGS AND LIMITATIONS section below.

  • '%s --version' did not produce output that could be parsed. Assuming modern Marionette is available:%s

    The Firefox binary did not produce a version number that could be recognised as a Firefox version number.

  • Failed to create process from '%s':%s

    The module was to start Firefox process in a Win32 environment. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to redirect %s to %s:%s

    The module was unable to redirect a file handle's output. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to exec %s:%s

    The module was unable to run the Firefox binary. Check the path is correct and the current user has execute permissions.

  • Failed to fork:%s

    The module was unable to fork itself, prior to executing a command. Check the current ulimit for max number of user processes.

  • Failed to open directory '%s':%s

    The module was unable to open a directory. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to close directory '%s':%s

    The module was unable to close a directory. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to open '%s' for writing:%s

    The module was unable to create a file in your temporary directory. Maybe your disk is full?

  • Failed to open temporary file for writing:%s

    The module was unable to create a file in your temporary directory. Maybe your disk is full?

  • Failed to close '%s':%s

    The module was unable to close a file in your temporary directory. Maybe your disk is full?

  • Failed to close temporary file:%s

    The module was unable to close a file in your temporary directory. Maybe your disk is full?

  • Failed to create temporary directory:%s

    The module was unable to create a directory in your temporary directory. Maybe your disk is full?

  • Failed to clear the close-on-exec flag on a temporary file:%s

    The module was unable to call fcntl using F_SETFD for a file in your temporary directory. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to seek to start of temporary file:%s

    The module was unable to seek to the start of a file in your temporary directory. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to create a socket:%s

    The module was unable to even create a socket. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to connect to %s on port %d:%s

    The module was unable to connect to the Marionette port. This is probably a bug in this module's logic. Please report as described in the BUGS AND LIMITATIONS section below.

  • Firefox killed by a %s signal (%d)

    Firefox crashed after being hit with a signal.

  • Firefox exited with a %d

    Firefox has exited with an error code

  • Failed to bind socket:%s

    The module was unable to bind a socket to any port. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to close random socket:%s

    The module was unable to close a socket without any reads or writes being performed on it. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • moz:headless has not been determined correctly

    The module was unable to correctly determine whether Firefox is running in "headless" or not. This is probably a bug in this module's logic. Please report as described in the BUGS AND LIMITATIONS section below.

  • %s method requires a Firefox::Marionette::Element parameter

    This function was called incorrectly by your code. Please supply a Firefox::Marionette::Element parameter when calling this function.

  • Failed to write to temporary file:%s

    The module was unable to write to a file in your temporary directory. Maybe your disk is full?

  • Failed to close socket to firefox:%s

    The module was unable to even close a socket. Something is seriously wrong with your environment.

  • Failed to send request to firefox:%s

    The module was unable to perform a syswrite on the socket connected to firefox. Maybe firefox crashed?

  • Failed to read size of response from socket to firefox:%s

    The module was unable to read from the socket connected to firefox. Maybe firefox crashed?

  • Failed to read response from socket to firefox:%s

    The module was unable to read from the socket connected to firefox. Maybe firefox crashed?

CONFIGURATION AND ENVIRONMENT

Firefox::Marionette requires no configuration files or environment variables. It will however use the DISPLAY and XAUTHORITY environment variables to try to connect to an X Server. It will also use the HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY, FTP_PROXY and ALL_PROXY environment variables as defaults if the session capabilities do not specify proxy information.

DEPENDENCIES

Firefox::Marionette requires the following non-core Perl modules

INCOMPATIBILITIES

None reported. Always interested in any products with marionette support that this module could be patched to work with.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS

Currently the following Marionette methods have not been implemented;

  • WebDriver:ReleaseAction
  • WebDriver:PerformActions
  • WebDriver:SetScreenOrientation

No bugs have been reported.

Please report any bugs or feature requests to bug-firefox-marionette@rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at http://rt.cpan.org.

SEE ALSO

AUTHOR

David Dick <ddick@cpan.org>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to the entire Mozilla organisation for a great browser and to the team behind Marionette for providing an interface for automation.

Thanks to Jan Odvarko for creating the HAR Export Trigger extension for Firefox.

Thanks also to the authors of the documentation in the following sources;

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 2020, David Dick <ddick@cpan.org>. All rights reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See "perlartistic" in perlartistic.

The Firefox::Marionette::Extension::HarExportTrigger module includes the HAR Export Trigger extension which is licensed under the Mozilla Public License 2.0.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENCE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.