pip-run provides on-demand temporary package installation
for a single execution run.
It replaces this series of commands (or their Windows equivalent):
$ virtualenv --python pythonX.X --system-site-packages $temp/env $ $temp/env/bin/pip install pkg1 pkg2 -r reqs.txt $ $temp/env/bin/python ... $ rm -rf $temp/env
With this single-line command:
$ py -X.X -m pip-run pkg1 pkg2 -r reqs.txt -- ...
- Downloads missing dependencies and makes their packages available for import.
- Installs packages to a special staging location such that they're not installed after the process exits.
- Relies on pip to cache downloads of such packages for reuse.
- Leaves no trace of its invocation (except files in pip's cache).
- Supersedes installed packages when required.
- Relies on packages already satisfied .
- Re-uses the pip tool chain for package installation.
pip-run is not intended to solve production dependency management, but does aim to address the other, one-off scenarios around dependency management:
- trials and experiments
- build setup
- test runners
- just in time script running
- interactive development
- bug triage
pip-run is a compliment to Pip and Virtualenv, intended to more
readily address the on-demand needs.
|||Except when a requirements file is used.|
pip-run is meant to be installed in the system site packages
alongside pip, though it can also be installed in a virtualenv.
- as script launcher
- as runtime dependency context manager
- as interactive interpreter in dependency context
- as module launcher (akin to python -m)
- as a shell shebang (
#!/usr/bin/env pip-run), to create single-file Python tools
pip-run from the command-line using the console entry
pip-run) or using the module executable (
python -m pip-run). This latter usage is particularly convenient
for testing a command across various Python versions.
Parameters following pip-run are passed directly to
pip-run numpy will install
numpy (reporting any work done
during the install) and
pip-run -v -r requirements.txt will verbosely
install all the requirements listed in a file called requirements.txt
(quiet is the default).
Any environment variables honored by pip
are also honored.
Following the parameters to
pip install, one may optionally
-- after which any parameters will be executed
by a Python interpreter in the context or directly if prefixed by
pip-run --help for more details.
The examples folder in this project includes some examples demonstrating the power and usefulness of the project. Read the docs on those examples for instructions.
Perhaps the most powerful usage of
pip-run is its ability to invoke
executable modules and packages via
$ pip-run cowsay -- -m cowsay "moove over, pip-run" ------------------- < moove over, pip-run > ------------------- \ ^__^ \ (oo)\_______ (__)\ )\/\ ||----w | || ||
Some package tools, like ranger, are
invoked with a unique executable instead of a module.
run an executable from a package if it is prependend by a
$ pip-run ranger-fm -- '!ranger'
Note that everything after the -- is passed to the python invocation, so it's possible to have a one-liner that runs under a dependency context:
$ python -m pip-run requests -- -c "import requests; print(requests.get('https://pypi.org/project/pip-run').status_code)" 200
As long as
pip-run is installed in each of Python environments
on the system, this command can be readily repeated on the other
python environments by specifying the relevant interpreter:
$ python3.7 -m pip-run ...
or on Windows or Unix with [pylauncher](https://python-launcher.app/):
$ py -3.7 -m pip-run ...
pip-run can run a Python file with indicated dependencies. Because
-- are passed directly to the Python interpreter
and because the Python interpreter will run any script, invoking a script
with dependencies is easy. Consider this script "myscript.py":
#!/usr/bin/env python import requests req = requests.get('https://pypi.org/project/pip-run') print(req.status_code)
To invoke it while making sure requests is present:
$ pip-run requests -- myscript.py
pip-run will make sure that requests is installed then invoke
the script in a Python interpreter configured with requests and its
For added convenience when running scripts,
pip-run will infer
the beginning of Python parameters if it encounters a filename
of a Python script that exists, allowing for omission of the
for script invocation:
$ pip-run requests myscript.py
Building on Script Runner above,
pip-run also allows
dependencies to be declared in the script itself so that
the user need not specify them at each invocation.
To declare dependencies in a script, add a
# Requirements: section to the script:
#!/usr/bin/env python __requires__ = ['requests'] # or # Requirements: # requests import requests req = requests.get('https://pypi.org/project/pip-run') print(req.status_code)
With that declaration in place, one can now invoke
declaring any parameters to pip:
$ pip-run myscript.py 200
The format for requirements must follow PEP 508.
Combined with in-script dependencies,
pip-run can be used as a shebang to
create fully self-contained scripts that install and run their own
dependencies, as long as
pip-run is installed on the system
Consider, for example, the
#!/usr/bin/env pip-run __requires__ = ['requests', 'beautifulsoup4', 'cowsay'] import requests from bs4 import BeautifulSoup as BS import cowsay res = requests.get('https://python.org') b = BS(res.text, 'html.parser') cowsay.dragon(b.find("div", class_="introduction").get_text())
This executable script is available in the repo as
examples/pydragon.py (for Windows ). Executing this script is
equivalent to executing
By default, the script will assemble the dependencies on each invocation,
which may be inconvenient for a script. See Environment Persistence for a technique to persist the assembled
dependencies across invocations. One may inject
in the shebang, but be aware that doing so breaks Windows portability.
pip-run also recognizes a global
__index_url__ attribute. If present,
this value will supply
--index-url to pip with the attribute value,
allowing a script to specify a custom package index:
#!/usr/bin/env python __requires__ = ['my_private_package'] __index_url__ = 'https://my.private.index/' import my_private_package ...
After having used
pip-run to run scripts, it may be desirable to extract the requirements from the
__requires__ variable or
# Requirements: section of a
script to install those more permanently. pip-run provides a routine to facilitate
$ py -m pip_run.read-deps examples/pydragon requests beautifulsoup4 cowsay
On Unix, it is possible to pipe this result directly to pip:
$ pip install $(py -m pip_run.read-deps examples/pydragon)
To generate a requirements.txt file, specify a newline separator:
$ py -m pip_run.read-deps --separator newline examples/pydragon > requirements.txt
And since pipenv uses the same syntax, the same technique works for pipenv:
$ pipenv install $(python -m pip_run.read-deps script.py)
pip-run also offers a painless way to run a Python interactive
interpreter in the context of certain dependencies:
$ /clean-install/python -m pip-run boto >>> import boto >>>
pip-run provides a single-command invocation, it
is great for experiments and rapid testing of various package
Consider a scenario in which one wishes to create an environment where two different versions of the same package are installed, such as to replicate a broken real-world environment. Stack two invocations of pip-run to get two different versions installed:
$ pip-run keyring==21.8.0 -- -m pip-run keyring==22.0.0 -- -c "import importlib.metadata, pprint; pprint.pprint([dist._path for dist in importlib.metadata.distributions() if dist.metadata['name'] == 'keyring'])" [PosixPath('/var/folders/03/7l0ffypn50b83bp0bt07xcch00n8zm/T/pip-run-a3xvd267/keyring-22.0.0.dist-info'), PosixPath('/var/folders/03/7l0ffypn50b83bp0bt07xcch00n8zm/T/pip-run-1fdjsgfs/keyring-21.8.0.dist-info')]
If IPython is specified as one of the dependencies, the Python
interpreter will be launched via IPython (using
for interactive mode. This behaviour may be toggled off by
setting the environment variable
pip-run effectively does the following:
pip install -t $TMPDIR
For specifics, see pip_run.run().
pip-run honors the
PIP_RUN_RETENTION_STRATEGY variable. If unset or
destroy, dependencies are installed to a temporary directory on
each invocation (and deleted after). Setting this variable to
instead create or re-use a directory in the user's cache, only installing the
dependencies if the directory doesn't already exist. A separate cache is
maintained for each combination of requirements specified.
persist strategy can greatly improve startup performance at the expense of
staleness and accumulated cruft.
PIP_RUN_RETENTION_STRATEGY=persist (or with
pip-run will re-install dependencies every time a script runs, silently
adding to the startup time while dependencies are installed into an ephemeral
environment, depending on how many dependencies there are and whether the
dependencies have been previously downloaded to the local pip cache. Use
pip-run -v ... to see the installation activity.
The location of the cache can be revealed with this command:
py -c 'import importlib; print(importlib.import_module("pip_run.retention.persist").paths.user_cache_path)'
- Due to limitations with
pip-runcannot run with "editable" (
sitecustomizemodule to ensure that
.pthfiles in the requirements are installed. As a result, any environment that has a
sitecustomizemodule will find that module masked when running under
The pipx project is another mature project with similar goals. Both projects expose a project and its dependencies in ephemeral environments. The main difference is pipx primarily exposes Python binaries (console scripts) from those environments whereas pip-run exposes a Python context (including runpy scripts).
|invoke console scripts||✓||✓|
|invoke runpy modules||✓|
|run standalone scripts||✓|
|interactive interpreter with deps||✓|
|re-use existing environment||✓|
|PEP 582 support||✓|
|Specify optional dependencies||✓|
|Python 2 support||✓|
The virtualenvwrapper project
attempts to address some of the use-cases that pip-run solves,
especially with the
mktmpenv command, which destroys the
virtualenv after deactivation. The main difference is that
is transient only for the invocation of a single command, while
mktmpenv lasts for a session.
|create temporary package environment||✓||✓|
|re-usable across python invocations||✓||✓|
|multiple interpreters in session||✓|
|run standalone scripts||✓||✓|
|interactive interpreter with deps||✓||✓|
|re-use existing environment||✓|
The author created this package with the intention of demonstrating
the capability before integrating it directly with pip in a command
pip run. After proposing the change, the idea was largely
rejected in pip 3971.
If you would like to see this functionality made available in pip, please upvote or comment in that ticket.
pip-run uses semver, so you can use this library with
confidence about the stability of the interface, even
during periods of great flux.
Invoke tests with
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