TrackToTrip is a library to process GPS tracks.
The main goals are to transform a (gpx) track into a trip.
track raw representation of a GPS recording. It is not precise, has noise and valuable information is hidden.
trip result of one or more processed tracks. Its start and end points have semantic meaning, such as home, work or school. It has less errors and it's compressed, with as little information loss as possible. In short, a trip is an approximation of the true path recorded.
You can install TrackToTrip with pip or EasyInstall,
pip install tracktotrip
easy_install install tracktotrip
Python 2.x is required, mainly because of the ikalman package.
You may want to install the dependencies with easyinstall first, to avoid building libraries such as numpy.
Can be loaded from a GPX file:
from tracktotrip import Track, Segment, Point track = Track.from_gpx(open('file_to_track.gpx', 'r'))
A track can be transformed into a trip with the method
to_trip. Transforming a track into a trip executes the following steps:
Smooths the segments, using the kalman filter
Spatiotemporal segmentation for each segment, using the DBSCAN algorithm to find spatiotemporal clusters
Compresses every segment, using spatiotemporal-aware compression algorithm
A track is composed by
Segments, and each segment by
It can be saved to a GPX file:
with open('file.gpx', 'w') as f: f.write(track.to_gpx())
A Segment holds the points, the transportation modes used, and the start and end semantic locations.
A Point holds the position and time. Currently the library doesn't support elevation.
tracktotrip.compressionimplements path compression algorithm, such as:
drp: Douglas Ramer Peucker Algorithm
td_sp: Top-Down Speed-Based Trajectory Compression Algorithm 
td_tr: Top-Down Time-Ratio Trajectory Compression Algorithm 
spt: A combination of both
tracktotrip.kalman.kalman_filterexecutes the kalman filter in a list of point
trip_learnused learn trips
complete_tripused to find trips between two points
tracktotrip.location.infer_locationuses known locations, and web APIs such as Google's and Foursquare's.
tracktotrip.similarityimplements function to find similarity between two
tracktotrip.smoothimplements functions mitigate kalman's lack of precision in the first predictions
tracktotrip.spatiotemporal_segmentation.spatiotemporal_segmentationuses the DBSCAN algorithm to perform spatiotemporal segmentation
tracktotrip.transportation_modeimplements transportation learning and prediction functions, such as:
extract_features_2to extract features from a set of points
learn_transportation_modeto learn the transportation modes of a track
speed_clusteringimplements changepoint segmentation and classifies sub-segments between changepoints
TrackToTrip is flexible, with lots of parameters. For general parameters, refer to
: Spatiotemporal Compression Techniques for Moving Point Objects, Nirvana Meratnia and Rolf A. de By, 2004, in Advances in Database Technology - EDBT 2004: 9th International Conference on Extending Database Technology, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, March 14-18, 2004
Transportation mode classification
For transportation mode classification, TrackToTrip uses a wrapper around sklearn's classifiers. We consider two different classifiers: the Stochastic Gradient Descent Classifier, and CART Decision Tree Classifier, both implemented by sklearn.
To classify a segment (trip) we first do changepoint segmentation, which sub-divides a segment into points where there was a change in mean the absolute velocity difference. For each sub-segment we then extract features.
Feature extraction is based on cumulative speed, and the amount of time spent at them. We create a histogram, where the bins the velocity (rounded) and the bin values are the percentage of time spent at a certain velocity (bin 10 is 10km/h). Then we create a cumulative histogram, and extract the velocities where the cumulative value surpasses 10, 20 to 90% of the time.
For instance, for a sub-division marked as walk, we get the features:
[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3]
This means that 90% (index 8) of the velocity is 3km/h, and 50% (index 4) of the sub-division was spent below 2km/h.
To train the default classifier we used the GeoLife GPS Trajectories dataset. We provide command line scripts to download the dataset and transform it to GPX.
We used the labels: foot, airplane, train and (motor) vehicle. The foot label includes data marked as run and walk. The train label is composed of data marked as train and subway. And the vehicle label is the combination of taxi, bus, motorcycle and car samples. We compressed the possible labels because of two factors:
- Lack of relevant data. Only 4 samples were marked as run;
- Transportation modes that belong to the same category. Taxi, car and bus are similar transportation modes, with a similar feature set. We also don't use tracks marked as boat and bike. Because there's only seven boat samples, and because bike features are reduce the quality of classification and is rarely used by us.
To evaluate the classifiers we perform two-fold validation with a 50% split of the data.
Using a SGD Classifier obtain a score between 84% and 86% (we use random permutation during training). Using a decision tree we obtain a score of 83%. These values drop to around 70% using the bike labels.
Command line tools
In addition to the library, TrackToTrip offers three command line tools outside of the library to manipulate GPS tracks and to generate classifier.
usage: tracktotrip_utils.py [-h] [-a] [-s] [-o] [--eps EPS] [--mintime MINTIME] [--seed SEED] track [track ...] output_folder Manipulate tracks positional arguments: track track to process, must be a gpx file output_folder optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -a, --anonymize anonymizes tracks, by doing random rotations and translations -s, --split splits tracks so that each file contains a segment -o, --organize takes all tracks and split them, naming them according with their start date --eps EPS max distance to other points. Used when spliting. Defaults to 1.0 --mintime MINTIME minimum time required to split, in seconds. Defaults to 120 --seed SEED random number generator seed. Used when anonymizing
usage: tracktotrip_geolife_dataset.py [-h] [-o outputFolder] [-d] datasetFolder GeoLife Trajectory dataset transportation mode extractor. Extracts transportation mode from the dataset, into individual files, annotated with the following format: [transporation mode].[control].[nPoints].[original file name].gpx positional arguments: datasetFolder Path to the GeoLife dataset folder optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -o outputFolder, --output outputFolder Path to processed dataset -d, --download Pass this flag to download the GeoLife dataset to the specified folder and to process it
usage: tracktotrip_build_classifier.py [-h] [-o outputFolder] [-f features] [-l labels] datasetFolder positional arguments: datasetFolder Path to the dataset, such as the GeoLife dataset optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -o outputFolder, --output outputFolder Folder to store the classifier -f features, --features features Path to features file to use -l labels, --labels labels Path to features file to use
These three projects are part of my master thesis.
- Make changes
- Create test cases
- Lint with pylint
- Send PR
This project also follows the Google Python Style Guide.